The two terms LoC and LAC are always in news because India have serious long-standing border disagreements with both Pakistan and China.
LoC stands for Line of Control & LAC stands for Line of Actual Control
At the moment India and Chinese soldiers are engaged on Line of Actual Control (LAC). Countries like India have many disputes over territory with its neighboring countries. At the moment India has border disagreements with Pakistan, China, and Nepal. Sometimes these border issues rise to such levels that the chance of combat between military forces becomes inevitable.
Last year after the Pulwama attack Indian forces engaged with the Pakistan army and the border skirmish over LoC led to Pakistan downing an Indian aircraft and Wing Commander Abhinandan Varthaman was subsequently captured by Pakistan armed forces. Abhinandan was held captive for almost 2 days and later was released as a goodwill gesture.
Now India is fighting with China over disputed land in Ladakh, Sikkim and Himachal Pradesh, where India has lost more than 20 soldiers along with Commanding Officer of 16 Bihar Regiment Colonel Santosh Babu.
Difference between LoC and LAC:
What is LoC: Line of Control denotes the military control line amid Pakistan and Indian controlled parts of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. LoC is a line that is not recognized as an international boundary but serves as a ceasefire line, which after the Simla Agreement was named LoC.
What is LAC: Line of Actual Control is a line which separates India controlled territory from Chinese controlled territory. The Line of Actual Control model came in 1993 after a mutual agreement.
The LAC further divided into three zones: the Ladakh sector, Sikkim, and Himachal Pradesh.
As there is no official demarcation at Line of Actual Control, the standoff keeps on happening at so many times such as the Doklam standoff in 2017, Chumar in 2014, Depsang in 2013, and Sumdorong Chu in 1987.
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