Different Types of Doctors Explained

Types of Doctors

There are many professions in the medical field to become a doctor. Some of the important types of doctors will be mentioned in this article which will provide a brief knowledge about each profession.

Adopting the profession of a doctor is not an easy process as it takes many years to become a specialized doctor. First, a student has to take a very competitive test for enrolling in a medical college after clearing higher secondary school. In Pakistan even getting admission into a medical college is a big feat as aspiring doctors are in thousands every year and medical colleges are very little in comparison. After the processes of clearing the test, getting into a merit list and clearing the interview, the student has to attend medical college for at least 5 years. After the 5 years of medical education, they have to go through the process of house job and medical specialization. Medical specialization is also a long term process. So, to become a medical specialist from among different types of doctors, it almost requires a period of 7 years or more.


A cardiologist has the expertise to treat heart problems. Heart problems can be initially diagnosed by the irregular rhythm of the heartbeat that can be observed through an ECG machine. They also treat the blood vessels. They also carry out heart surgeries. Moreover, they treat heart attacks, heart failures, chest pain, and high blood pressure.


A psychiatrist is specialized in dealing with patients who are suffering from some mental disorder. They have the expertise to treat the mental health of people. They not only treat the mental health but they also deal with the emotional problems and behavioral problems of an individual. They do personal counseling of people to enable them to live a normal life. Personal counseling is commonly known as psychotherapy. Other than the psychotherapy, they also do psychoanalysis with hospitalization and medication.


A dermatologist has the skills to perform elective procedures like Botox or laser treatment. Basically, they have specialization in treating the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membrane disorders. They also treat people who have cosmetic issues as they allow them to look better with glowing skin. Moreover, apart from treating skin problems, they deal with acne, skin cancer, and psoriasis.

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Nephrologist deals with patients who have problems with their kidneys. They help patients with kidney problems by prescribing different treatments. They prescribe dialysis to patients who are suffering from kidney failure. They have sub-specialization in nephrology after getting the training in internal medicine.


Ophthalmologist treats eye disorders. They help those patients who have a vision problem. They play a vital role in improving the vision of an individual to make them see things clearly by doing eye tests and recommending optical glasses and contact lens. In treating different eye disorders, they normally treat with cataracts and glaucoma. Indeed, the sharpness of vision is the aim of the ophthalmologist.


Otolaryngologist deal with the problems of ear, nose, and throat. An otolaryngologist is also known as an ENT specialist. They deal with the issues of sinus problems mostly. They also treat allergies, head, and neck cancer. Otolaryngologist treats patients with a combination of surgical skills, indoor treatment, and medicines.


Pulmonologist deal with the cardio-pulmonary system. They have the expertise to treat patients who are suffering from heart problems and also have a breathing problem. They help the patients to take breathe properly by observing their heart and lungs and prescribing different medicines or inhalers. In short, they deal with all pulmonary infections like severe allergies, lung problems, or breathing disorders.


They deal with autoimmune conditions, asthma, eczema, food allergies, insect sting allergies, and other immune system disorders.


These doctors administer medications to you to make you unconscious or to numb your pain during operations, delivery, or other treatments. While you are unconscious, your vital signs are being watched.

Emergency Medicine Specialists

For sick and injured patients, these doctors typically make life-or-death decisions in an emergency room. Their duties include saving lives and preventing or reducing the likelihood of disability.

Colon and Rectal Surgeons

For issues with your colon, bottom, and small intestine, you would visit these doctors. They can cure inflammatory bowel disease, hemorrhoids, and colon cancer.

Family Physicians

They’re helpful for all members of the family, from infants to seniors. They treat diabetes and other persistent medical disorders, do regular checkups and screening exams, and administer flu shots and other vaccinations.


They have specialized knowledge of the stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. They could treat digestive organ cancers, ulcers, diarrhea, jaundice, and stomach pain. For colon cancer, they also perform a colonoscopy and other tests.

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Geriatric Medicine Specialists

The elderly are taken care of by these doctors. They can provide care to patients at their homes, medical offices, hospitals, nursing homes, and facilities for assisted living.


These surgeons treat both men and women who have urination issues, such as a leaky bladder. They also perform prostate exams and treat male infertility.

General Surgeons

All of your body’s organs can be operated on by these doctors. In addition to hernia repairs, they can remove tumors, appendices, or gallbladders. Many surgeons specialize in specific areas, such as vascular, hand, or cancer surgery.

This is an ongoing post and more information will be updated time by time.

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